Sorption Database

Our  collaboration with the Biochar Water Treatment Research Consortium at Aqueous Solutions ( has resulted in the inclusion of sorption stuides on biochar to our database. Currently, we are providing a bibliogrpahy of papers addressing sorption to biochar and we plan to incorporate this data into the full database in the near future. 

The volume of research on the topic of biochar has grown by leaps and bounds in recent years.

A Web of Science search for articles, reviews, books, abstracts, data studies, and reports including the keyword “biochar” reveals that the number of studies published per year has grown from a handful in the mid-2000s to over 900 in 2015.

 Web of Science results for keyword “biochar,” inclusive of articles, reviews, books, abstracts, data studies, corrections, data sets, and reports, and excluding patents, meetings, letters, news, editorials, "unspecified," and "other."

An emerging subset of biochar research pertains to its application as an environmentally sustainable and cost-effective adsorbent. In recent years an increasing number of studies have quantified different biochars’ capacity for uptake of nutrients such as ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate, greenhouse gases, heavy metals, and organic compounds.

Our work is primarily concerned with biochar adsorption of organic contaminants from aqueous solutions in the context of water and wastewater treatment. Since we began this work in 2006, studies published on the topic of organic compound adsorption by biochars have grown in proportion with overall biochar research.

Studies of organic compound adsorption by biochars published per year as cataloged in our bibliography.

The potential for use of chars as adsorbents in water contaminant management and environmental remediation has recently been reviewed by several research groups [1-17].

As a free, open-access resource for the biochar research/implementation and low-cost water and wastewater treatment sectors, we are pleased to publish our bibliographic reference database online here at Aqueous Solutions.

Below you will find a periodically updated bibliography of peer-reviewed studies quantifying organic compound sorption by biochars, broken down into the subcategories "pesticides," "industrial compounds," "pharmaceuticals," and "natural compounds."

First, a word on what is not included in the database: 

  • Studies of sorption of nutrients such as ammonium, nitrate and phosphate are not included here. Nor are studies of greenhouse gases or inorganic contaminants such as cyanide, arsenic, and heavy metals included. These are, nonetheless, important topics that well deserve the growing concern they are receiving in the biochar research community. We would applaud efforts to generate similar open-access bibliographic reference databases for studies of biochar adsorption of these compounds; here we restrict our focus to organic compounds.
  • Studies that have quantified biochar adsorption of organic compounds in soil mixtures are not included here. Likewise this is an important topic and highly relevant approach in biochar adsorption research. However our efforts are focused specifically on biochar adsorption of contaminants from aqueous solutions in engineered systems. Therefore, the studies of greatest utility for our applications directly quantify contaminant uptake under appropriately related experimental conditions. So, for example, we have not included studies of sorption inferred through proxy measures such as plant or insect bioassays.
  • Studies using exotic, extensively modified, or otherwise “high-tech” biochars – for example, biochar-nanomaterial composites, physically or chemically activated chars, products of hydrothermal carbonization, etc., are partially represented in the database, but somewhat de-emphasized. The rationale is that we are most interested in “low-tech” chars that can be produced from simple and low-cost technologies, and that are not subsequently altered using techniques that are sophisticated, costly, environmentally hazardous, resource intensive, or otherwise infeasible in developing communities. Rajapaksha and co-workers have provided a recent review of modified “designer” biochar sorbents [17].
  • Studies that are only available in non-English languages.

Please feel free to contact us with suggestions for improving the database, or if you know of studies that are overlooked here. The database will be updated on an approximately monthly basis.

If you refer to this database in your work please cite it as Biochar Adsorption Reference Database, Aqueous Solutions [ ], 2016.


1.   Ahmad, M., A.U. Rajapaksha, J.E. Lim, M. Zhang, N. Bolan, D. Mohan, M. Vithanage, S.S. Lee, and Y.S. Ok, Biochar as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water: A review. Chemosphere, 2014. 99: p. 19-33.
2.   Mohan, D., A. Sarswat, Y.S. Ok, and C.U. Pittman, Organic and inorganic contaminants removal from water with biochar, a renewable, low cost and sustainable adsorbent - A critical review. Bioresource Technology, 2014. 160: p. 191-202.
3.   Nartey, O.D. and B.W. Zhao, Biochar Preparation, Characterization, and Adsorptive Capacity and Its Effect on Bioavailability of Contaminants: An Overview. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2014.
4.   Zhang, X.K., H.L. Wang, L.Z. He, K.P. Lu, A. Sarmah, J.W. Li, N. Bolan, J.C. Pei, and H.G. Huang, Using biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2013. 20(12): p. 8472-8483.
5.   Tan, X., Y. Liu, G. Zeng, X. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Gu, and Z. Yang, Application of biochar for the removal of pollutants from aqueous solutions. Chemosphere, 2015.
6.   Xie, T., K.R. Reddy, C.W. Wang, E. Yargicoglu, and K. Spokas, Characteristics and Applications of Biochar for Environmental Remediation: A Review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 2015. 45(9): p. 939-969.
7.   Anyika, C., Z. Abdul Majid, Z. Ibrahim, M. Zakaria, and A. Yahya, The impact of biochars on sorption and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils—a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2014: p. 1-28.
9.   Qian, K.Z., A. Kumar, H.L. Zhang, D. Bellmer, and R. Huhnke, Recent advances in utilization of biochar. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2015. 42: p. 1055-1064.
10. Inyang, M. and E. Dickenson, The potential role of biochar in the removal of organic and microbial contaminants from potable and reuse water: A review. Chemosphere, 2015. 134(0): p. 232-240.
11. Ahmed, M.B., J.L. Zhou, H.H. Ngo, and W. Guo, Adsorptive removal of antibiotics from water and wastewater: Progress and challenges. Science of The Total Environment, 2015. 532(0): p. 112-126.
12. Macdonald, L.M., M. Williams, D. Oliver, and R.S. Kookana, Biochar and hydrochar as low-cost adsorbents for removing contaminants from water. Australian Water Association Journal, 2015. April: p. 142-147.
13. Janus, A., A. Pelfrêne, S. Heymans, C. Deboffe, F. Douay, and C. Waterlot, Elaboration, characteristics and advantages of biochars for the management of contaminated soils with a specific overview on Miscanthus biochars. Journal of Environmental Management, 2015. 162: p. 275-289.
14. Yavari, S., A. Malakahmad, and N. Sapari, Biochar efficiency in pesticides sorption as a function of production variables—a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2015. 22(18): p. 13824-13841.
15. Lamichhane, S., K.C.B. Krishna, and R. Sarukkalige, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal by sorption: A review. Chemosphere, 2016. 148: p. 336-353.
16. Hale, S.E., H.P.H. Arp, D. Kupryianchyk, and G. Cornelissen, A synthesis of parameters related to the binding of neutral organic compounds to charcoal. Chemosphere, 2016. 144: p. 65-74.
17. Rajapaksha, A.U., S.S. Chen, D.C.W. Tsang, M. Zhang, M. Vithanage, S. Mandal, B. Gao, N.S. Bolan, and Y.S. Ok, Engineered/designer biochar for contaminant removal/immobilization from soil and water: Potential and implication of biochar modification. Chemosphere, 2016. 148: p. 276-291.

[ Last updated: Last updated: August 26, 2016 ]


Biochar Sorption Reference Database





2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)


2,4-DB (4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)
butanoic acid)





[3, 4, 13, 14]


[10, 15-18]


[6-8, 10, 12, 17, 19-34]


[10, 12]




[15, 18]


[3, 12, 21]


[35, 36]






[33, 38]




[40, 41]




[8, 15, 18, 19, 24, 25]






[43, 44]















MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy acetic acid)

[9, 42, 49]




[13, 51]




[43, 44]














[5, 8, 10, 16, 17]


[5, 59]


[12, 60]


[61, 62]


[17, 23, 63, 64]






[16, 17]












Industrial Compounds














[70, 71]


[71, 72, 75, 76]












[68, 74, 77]


[71, 77]



1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX)



[74, 77]


[72, 73]


[74, 81]


















[74, 82]




[53, 70, 71, 78, 79]





2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)

[70, 71, 78-80]












[82, 84]







4-monobromodiphengl ether







[70, 71]




[16, 74]


[17, 71, 73, 75, 81, 86-91]






[8, 92]




[30, 92-94]

butyl benzyl phthalate




crude oil




dibutyl phthalate

[14, 95, 98-101]

diethyl phthalate

[95, 100]

dimethyl phthalate


dimethyl sulfide


dye compounds






halogenated phenols


imidazolium-type ionic liquids



[123, 124]

mono-n-butyl phthalate




N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)





[10, 17, 67-69, 71, 72, 74, 75, 81, 91, 110, 123, 124, 126-131]

naphthenic acids



[74, 88, 110, 123, 124]








[71, 124, 127]



PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)

[120, 137-141]

PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls)


PDBEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers)






perfluorinated carboxylic acid (PFOA)

[150, 151]

perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS)


perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)

[151, 152]


[14, 31, 34, 67, 71-75, 93, 94, 98, 99, 120, 128, 130, 131, 146, 153-166]


[68, 74, 111, 167-169]


[74, 91, 120, 159, 170-173]


[10, 16, 17]


[16, 17, 174]



sulfonated methyl phenol resin



[71, 86]

toluic acid



[73, 176, 177]

trihalomethanes (disinfection by-products)


tris(3-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TCPP)


Triton TX100 surfactant







17α-ethinyl estradiol

[14, 30, 34, 94]

17 beta-estradiol





[30, 179, 180]






[182, 183]




[30, 185]



fish anaesthetic MS-222







[30, 82, 185, 189, 190]






[178, 185]


[93, 193]


[93, 186]









ranitidine hydrochloride


salicylic acid





[30, 93, 179, 201-210]




[205, 211]


[180, 182, 198, 203, 212, 213]


[9, 82]








Natural Compounds



2-(2-hydroxyethyl) guanidinium cation


2-methylisoborneol (MIB)




cinnamic acid


coumaric acid


dissolved organic matter (DOM ) fractions


effluent organic matter (EfOM)


humic acid

[96, 219]




[215, 221]

polycarboxylic aliphatic acids


α -pinene


tannic acid




1.      Kearns, J.P., D.R.U. Knappe, and R.S. Summers, Synthetic organic water contaminants in developing communities: an overlooked challenge addressed by adsorption with locally generated char. Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 2014. 4(3): p. 422-436.

2.      Kearns, J.P., L.S. Wellborn, R.S. Summers, and D.R.U. Knappe, 2,4-D adsorption to biochars: Effect of preparation conditions on equilibrium adsorption capacity and comparison with commercial activated carbon literature data. Water Research, 2014. 62: p. 20-28.

3.      Li, J.F., Y.M. Li, M.J. Wu, Z.Y. Zhang, and J.H. Lu, Effectiveness of low-temperature biochar in controlling the release and leaching of herbicides in soil. Plant and Soil, 2013. 370(1-2): p. 333-344.

4.      Lu, J.H., J.F. Li, Y.M. Li, B.Z. Chen, and Z.F. Bao, Use of Rice Straw Biochar Simultaneously as the Sustained Release Carrier of Herbicides and Soil Amendment for Their Reduced Leaching. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2012. 60(26): p. 6463-6470.

5.      Qiu, Y.P., X.Y. Xiao, H.Y. Cheng, Z.L. Zhou, and G.D. Sheng, Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Adsorption by Black Carbon: pH and Model Dissolved Organic Matter. Environmental Science & Technology, 2009. 43(13): p. 4973-4978.

6.      Alam, J.B., A.K. Dikshit, and A. Bandyopadhayay, EFFICACY OF ADSORBENTS FOR 2,4-D AND ATRAZINE REMOVAL FROM WATER ENVIRONMENT. Global Nest, the International Journal, 2000. 2(2): p. 139-148.

7.      Clay, S.A. and D.D. Malo, The Influence of Biochar Production on Herbicide Sorption Characteristics, in Properties, Synthesis and Control of Weeds, M.N. Hasaneen, Editor. 2012, InTech.

8.      Ulrich, B.A., E.A. Im, D. Werner, and C.P. Higgins, Biochar and Activated Carbon for Enhanced Trace Organic Contaminant Retention in Stormwater Infiltration Systems. Environmental Science & Technology, 2015. 49(10): p. 6222-6230.

9.      Sigmund, G., H.C. Sun, T. Hofmann, and M. Kah, Predicting the Sorption of Aromatic Acids to Noncarbonized and Carbonized Sorbents. Environmental Science & Technology, 2016. 50(7): p. 3641-3648.

10.    Xiao, F. and J.J. Pignatello, Effects of Post-Pyrolysis Air Oxidation of Biomass Chars on Adsorption of Neutral and Ionizable Compounds. Environmental Science & Technology, 2016. 50(12): p. 6276-6283.

11.    Kearns, J.P., D.R.U. Knappe, and R.S. Summers, Feasibility of using traditional kiln charcoals in low cost water treatment: The role of pyrolysis conditions on 2,4-D herbicide adsorption. Environmental Engineering Science, 2015. 32(11).

12.    Taha, S.M., M.E. Amer, A.E. Elmarsafy, and M.Y. Elkady, Adsorption of 15 different pesticides on untreated and phosphoric acid treated biochar and charcoal from water. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2014. 2(4): p. 2013-2025.

13.    Li, J.F., S.J. Li, H.P. Dong, S.S. Yang, Y.M. Li, and J.X. Zhong, Role of Alumina and Montmorillonite in Changing the Sorption of Herbicides to Biochars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2015. 63(24): p. 5740-5746.

14.    Wang, Z.Y., L.F. Han, K. Sun, J. Jin, K.S. Ro, J.A. Libra, X.T. Liu, and B.S. Xing, Sorption of four hydrophobic organic contaminants by biochars derived from maize straw, wood dust and swine manure at different pyrolytic temperatures. Chemosphere, 2016. 144: p. 285-291.

15.    Yang, Y.N., Y. Chun, G.Y. Sheng, and M.S. Huang, pH-dependence of pesticide adsorption by wheat-residue-derived black carbon. Langmuir, 2004. 20(16): p. 6736-6741.

16.    Xiao, F. and J.J. Pignatello, π+–π Interactions between (Hetero)aromatic Amine Cations and the Graphitic Surfaces of Pyrogenic Carbonaceous Materials. Environmental Science & Technology, 2015. 49(2): p. 906-914.

17.    Xiao, F. and J.J. Pignatello, Interactions of triazine herbicides with biochar: Steric and electronic effects. Water Res, 2015. 80: p. 179-188.

18.    Sheng, G., Y. Yang, M. Huang, and K. Yang, Influence of pH on pesticide sorption by soil containing wheat residue-derived char. Environmental Pollution, 2005. 134(3): p. 457-463.

19.    Cheng, C.H., T.P. Lin, J. Lehmann, L.J. Fang, Y.W. Yang, O.V. Menyailo, K.H. Chang, and J.S. Lai, Sorption properties for black carbon (wood char) after long term exposure in soils. Organic Geochemistry, 2014. 70: p. 53-61.

20.    Hao, F.H., X.C. Zhao, W. Ouyang, C.Y. Lin, S.Y. Chen, Y.S. Shan, and X.H. Lai, Molecular Structure of Corncob-Derived Biochars and the Mechanism of Atrazine Sorption. Agronomy Journal, 2013. 105(3): p. 773-782.

21.    Zhang, P., H.W. Sun, L. Yu, and T.H. Sun, Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of carbaryl and atrazine on pig manure-derived biochars: Impact of structural properties of biocharse. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2013. 244: p. 217-224.

22.    Cao, X.D. and W. Harris, Properties of dairy-manure-derived biochar pertinent to its potential use in remediation. Bioresource Technology, 2010. 101(14): p. 5222-5228.

23.    Zheng, W., M.X. Guo, T. Chow, D.N. Bennett, and N. Rajagopalan, Sorption properties of greenwaste biochar for two triazine pesticides. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2010. 181(1-3): p. 121-126.

24.    Yang, Y.N. and G.Y. Sheng, Enhanced pesticide sorption by soils containing particulate matter from crop residue burns. Environmental Science & Technology, 2003. 37(16): p. 3635-3639.

25.    Yang, Y.N. and G.Y. Sheng, Pesticide adsorptivity of aged particulate matter arising from crop residue burns. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2003. 51(17): p. 5047-5051.

26.    Cao, X.D., L.N. Ma, B. Gao, and W. Harris, Dairy-Manure Derived Biochar Effectively Sorbs Lead and Atrazine. Environmental Science & Technology, 2009. 43(9): p. 3285-3291.

27.    Zhang, W., J. Zheng, P. Zheng, and R. Qiu, Atrazine immobilization on sludge derived biochar and the interactive influence of coexisting Pb(II) or Cr(VI) ions. Chemosphere, 2015. 134: p. 438-445.

28.    Zhou, F., H. Wang, S.e. Fang, W. Zhang, and R. Qiu, Pb(II), Cr(VI) and atrazine sorption behavior on sludge-derived biochar: role of humic acids. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2015: p. 1-9.

29.    Liu, N., A.B. Charrua, C.-H. Weng, X. Yuan, and F. Ding, Characterization of biochars derived from agriculture wastes and their adsorptive removal of atrazine from aqueous solution: A comparative study. Bioresource Technology, 2015. 198: p. 55-62.

30.    Jung, C., J. Park, K.H. Lim, S. Park, J. Heo, N. Her, J. Oh, S. Yun, and Y. Yoon, Adsorption of selected endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals on activated biochars. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2013. 263: p. 702-710.

31.    Ren, X.H., H.W. Sun, F. Wang, and F.M. Cao, The changes in biochar properties and sorption capacities after being cultured with wheat for 3 months. Chemosphere, 2016. 144: p. 2257-2263.

32.    Tan, G.C., W.L. Sun, Y.R. Xu, H.Y. Wang, and N. Xu, Sorption of mercury (II) and atrazine by biochar, modified biochars and biochar based activated carbon in aqueous solution. Bioresource Technology, 2016. 211: p. 727-735.

33.    Wang, P.F., Y.Y. Yin, Y. Guo, and C. Wang, Preponderant adsorption for chlorpyrifos over atrazine by wheat straw-derived biochar: experimental and theoretical studies. Rsc Advances, 2016. 6(13): p. 10615-10624.

34.    Zhou, J., H. Chen, W. Huang, J.M. Arocena, and S. Ge, Sorption of Atrazine, 17α-Estradiol, and Phenanthrene on Wheat Straw and Peanut Shell Biochars. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 2015. 227(1): p. 1-13.

35.    Mayakaduwa, S.S., M. Vithanage, A. Karunaratne, and D. mohan, USE OF BIOCHAR PRODUCED FROM TEA RESIDUE TO REMOVE CARBOFURAN FROM WATER. Proceedings of the Peradeniya Univ. International Research Sessions, Sri Lanka, 2014. 18: p. 21.

36.    Vithanage, M., S.S. Mayakaduwa, I. Herath, Y.S. Ok, and D. Mohan, Kinetics, thermodynamics and mechanistic studies of carbofuran removal using biochars from tea waste and rice husks. Chemosphere, 2016. 150: p. 781-789.

37.    Wang, T.-T., Y.-S. Li, A. Jiang, M.-X. Lu, X.-J. Liu, and X.-Y. Yu, Suppression of Chlorantraniliprole Sorption on Biochar in Soil–Biochar Systems. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2015: p. 1-6.

38.    Wang, P., Y. Yin, Y. Guo, and C. Wang, Removal of chlorpyrifos from waste water by wheat straw-derived biochar synthesized through oxygen-limited method. RSC Advances, 2015. 5(89): p. 72572-72578.

39.    Jiang, J., Y. Peng, M. Yuan, Z. Hong, D. Wang, and R. Xu, Rice Straw-Derived Biochar Properties and Functions as Cu(II) and Cyromazine Sorbents as Influenced by Pyrolysis Temperature. Pedosphere, 2015. 25(5): p. 781-789.

40.    Uchimiya, M., L.H. Wartelle, and V.M. Boddu, Sorption of Triazine and Organophosphorus Pesticides on Soil and Biochar. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2012. 60(12): p. 2989-2997.

41.    Uchimiya, M., L.H. Wartelle, I.M. Lima, and K.T. Klasson, Sorption of Deisopropylatrazine on Broiler Litter Biochars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2010. 58(23): p. 12350-12356.

42.    Trigo, C., K.A. Spokas, L. Cox, and W.C. Koskinen, Influence of Soil Biochar Aging on Sorption of the Herbicides MCPA, Nicosulfuron, Terbuthylazine, Indaziflam, and Fluoroethyldiaminotriazine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2014. 62(45): p. 10855-10860.

43.    Sun, K., B. Gao, K.S. Ro, J.M. Novak, Z.Y. Wang, S. Herbert, and B.S. Xing, Assessment of herbicide sorption by biochars and organic matter associated with soil and sediment. Environmental Pollution, 2012. 163: p. 167-173.

44.    Sun, K., M. Keiluweit, M. Kleber, Z.Z. Pan, and B.S. Xing, Sorption of fluorinated herbicides to plant biomass-derived biochars as a function of molecular structure. Bioresource Technology, 2011. 102(21): p. 9897-9903.

45.    Herath, H.M.S.K., S.S. Mayakaduwa, and M. Vithanage. Potential of Different Biochars for Glyphosate Removal in Water; Implications for Water Safety. in 6th International Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction Management. 11-13 December, 2015. 2015. Kandy, Sri Lanka: CSECM.

46.    Herath, I., P. Kumarathilaka, M.I. Al-Wabel, A. Abduljabbar, M. Ahmad, A.R.A. Usman, and M. Vithanage, Mechanistic modeling of glyphosate interaction with rice husk derived engineered biochar. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 2016. 225: p. 280-288.

47.    Mayakaduwa, S.S., P. Kumarathilaka, I. Herath, M. Ahmad, M. Al-Wabel, Y.S. Ok, A. Usman, A. Abduljabbar, and M. Vithanage, Equilibrium and kinetic mechanisms of woody biochar on aqueous glyphosate removal. Chemosphere, 2016. 144: p. 2516-2521.

48.    Song, Y., F. Wang, Y.R. Bian, F.O. Kengara, M.Y. Jia, Z.B. Xie, and X. Jiang, Bioavailability assessment of hexachlorobenzene in soil as affected by wheat straw biochar. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2012. 217: p. 391-397.

49.    Tatarkova, V., E. Hiller, and M. Vaculik, Impact of wheat straw biochar addition to soil on the sorption, leaching, dissipation of the herbicide (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid and the growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2013. 92: p. 215-221.

50.    Graber, E.R., L. Tsechansky, Z. Gerstl, and B. Lew, High surface area biochar negatively impacts herbicide efficacy. Plant and Soil, 2012. 353(1-2): p. 95-106.

51.    White Jr, P.M., T.L. Potter, and I.M. Lima, Sugarcane and pinewood biochar effects on activity and aerobic soil dissipation of metribuzin and pendimethalin. Industrial Crops and Products, 2015. 74: p. 737-744.

52.    Tsai, W.T. and H.R. Chen, Adsorption kinetics of herbicide paraquat in aqueous solution onto a low-cost adsorbent, swine-manure-derived biochar. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2013. 10(6): p. 1349-1356.

53.    Oh, S.-Y., J.-G. Son, and P. Chiu, Black carbon-mediated reductive transformation of nitro compounds by hydrogen sulfide. Environmental Earth Sciences, 2015. 73(4): p. 1813-1822.

54.    Devi, P. and A.K. Saroha, Synthesis of the magnetic biochar composites for use as an adsorbent for the removal of pentachlorophenol from the effluent. Bioresource Technology, 2014. 169: p. 525-531.

55.    Lou, L.P., B.B. Wu, L.N. Wang, L. Luo, X.H. Xu, J.A. Hou, B. Xun, B.L. Hu, and Y.X. Chen, Sorption and ecotoxicity of pentachlorophenol polluted sediment amended with rice-straw derived biochar. Bioresource Technology, 2011. 102(5): p. 4036-4041.

56.    Devi, P. and A.K. Saroha, Simultaneous adsorption and dechlorination of pentachlorophenol from effluent by Ni–ZVI magnetic biochar composites synthesized from paper mill sludge. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2015. 271(0): p. 195-203.

57.    Devi, P. and A.K. Saroha, Effect of pyrolysis temperature on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons toxicity and sorption behaviour of biochars prepared by pyrolysis of paper mill effluent treatment plant sludge. Bioresource Technology, 2015. 192(0): p. 312-320.

58.    Lou, L., F. Liu, Q. Yue, F. Chen, Q. Yang, B. Hu, and Y. Chen, Influence of humic acid on the sorption of pentachlorophenol by aged sediment amended with rice-straw biochar. Applied Geochemistry, 2013. 33: p. 76-83.

59.    Xiao, X.Y., F.L. Li, J.X. Huang, G.D. Sheng, and Y.P. Qiu, Reduced adsorption of propanil to black carbon: Effect of dissolved organic matter loading mode and molecule size. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2012. 31(6): p. 1187-1193.

60.    Sun, K., M.J. Kang, K.S. Ro, J.A. Libra, Y. Zhao, and B.S. Xing, Variation in sorption of propiconazole with biochars: The effect of temperature, mineral, molecular structure, and nano-porosity. Chemosphere, 2016. 142: p. 56-63.

61.    Xi, X., J. Yan, G. Quan, and L. Cui, Removal of the Pesticide Pymetrozine from Aqueous Solution by Biochar Produced from Brewer's Spent Grain at Different Pyrolytic Temperatures. BioResources, 2014. 9(4): p. 7696-7709.

62.    Cui, L.Q., J.L. Yan, G.X. Quan, C. Ding, T.M. Chen, and Q. Hussain, Adsorption Behaviour of Pymetrozine by Four Kinds of Biochar from Aqueous Solution. Adsorption Science & Technology, 2013. 31(6): p. 477-487.

63.    Jones, D.L., G. Edwards-Jones, and D.V. Murphy, Biochar mediated alterations in herbicide breakdown and leaching in soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 2011. 43(4): p. 804-813.

64.    Zhang, G.X., Q. Zhang, K. Sun, X.T. Liu, W.J. Zheng, and Y. Zhao, Sorption of simazine to corn straw biochars prepared at different pyrolytic temperatures. Environmental Pollution, 2011. 159(10): p. 2594-2601.

65.    García-Jaramillo, M., L. Cox, H.E. Knicker, J. Cornejo, K.A. Spokas, and M.C. Hermosín, Characterization and selection of biochar for an efficient retention of tricyclazole in a flooded alluvial paddy soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2015. 286(0): p. 581-588.

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