The UC Davis Biochar Database represents data collected in our laboratory at UC Davis and extracted from a growing number of published studies. However, the real power of the database will be realized by contributions coming from members of the biochar community. We therefore encourage wide-spread participation in the database through our data entry module.  In addition, we anticipate collaborating with other biochar stakeholders who have access to large amounts of data for inclusion in the UCD Biochar Database. Substantial contributors of data will be acknowledged in the space below.


Substantial Contributors

The Biochar Water Treatment Research Consortium at Aqueous Solutions ( has provided their compilation of biochar sorption data to be included in the UC Davis Biochar Database. Currently we are sharing their collection of papers addressing sorption to biochar and we will incorporate this data into the full database in the near future. The Biochar Water Treatment Research Consortium is Josh Kearns, Kyle Shimabuku, R. Scott Summers, and Detlef R.U. Knappe. Contact information is available on the bios page



Data from the following references is included in the UC Davis Biochar Database:

3R: Recycle – Reuse – Reduce - Zero Emission Pyrolysis.

Abdelhafez, A. A., Li, J., and Abbas, M. H. H. (2014). Feasibility of biochar manufactured from organic wastes on the stabilization of heavy metals in a metal smelter contaminated soil. Chemosphere 117, 66-71.

Agegnehu, G., Bass, A.M., Nelson, P.N., Muirhead, B., Wright, G., and Bird, M.I. (2015). "Biochar and biochar-compost as soil amendments: Effects on peanut yield, soil properties and greenhouse gas emissions in tropical North Queensland, Australia." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 213, 72-85.

Agrafioti, E., Bouras, G., Kalderis, D., and Diamadopoulos, E. (2013). Biochar production by sewage sludge pyrolysis. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 101, 72-78.

Ahmad, M., Lee, S. S., Dou, X., Mohan, D., Sung, J.-K., Yang, J. E., and Ok, Y. S. (2012). Effects of pyrolysis temperature on soybean stover- and peanut shell-derived biochar properties and TCE adsorption in water. Bioresource Technology 118, 536-544.

Ahmad, M., Rajapaksha, A. U., Lim, J. E., Zhang, M., Bolan, N., Mohan, D., Vithanage, M., Lee, S. S., and Ok, Y. S. (2014). Biochar as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water: A review. Chemosphere 99, 19-33.

Akhtar, S. S., Li, G., Andersen, M. N., and Liu, F. (2014). Biochar enhances yield and quality of tomato under reduced irrigation. Agricultural Water Management 138, 37-44.

Alburquerque, J.A., Sanchez, M.E., Mora, M., Barron, Vidal. (2016). Slow pyrolysis of relevant biomasses in the Mediterranean basin. Part 2. Char characterization for carbon sequestration and agricultural uses. Journal of Cleaner Production 120, 191-197.

Alburquerque, J. A., Sánchez-Monedero, M. A., Roig, A., and Cayuela, M. L. (2015). High concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene) failed to explain biochar's capacity to reduce soil nitrous oxide emissions. Environmental Pollution 196, 72-77.

Alling, V., Hale, S. E., Martinsen, V., Mulder, J., Smebye, A., Breedveld, G. D., and Cornelissen, G. (2014). The role of biochar in retaining nutrients in amended tropical soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 177, 671-680.

Ameloot, N., Sleutel, S., Case, S. D. C., Alberti, G., McNamara, N. P., Zavalloni, C., Vervisch, B., Vedove, G. d., and De Neve, S. (2014). C mineralization and microbial activity in four biochar field experiments several years after incorporation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 78, 195-203.

Ameloot, N., Sleutel, S., Das, K. C., Kanagaratnam, J., and De Neve, S. (2013). Biochar amendment to soils with contrasting organic matter level: effects on N mineralization and biological soil properties. GCB Bioenergy.

Angın, D. (2013). Effect of pyrolysis temperature and heating rate on biochar obtained from pyrolysis of safflower seed press cake. Bioresource Technology 128, 593-597.

Angın, D., Altintig, E., and Köse, T. E. (2013). Influence of process parameters on the surface and chemical properties of activated carbon obtained from biochar by chemical activation. Bioresource Technology 148, 542-549.

Angst, T. E., Six, J., Reay, D. S., and Sohi, S. P. (2014). Impact of pine chip biochar on trace greenhouse gas emissions and soil nutrient dynamics in an annual ryegrass system in California. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 191, 17-26.

Anjum, R., Krakat, N., Toufiq Reza, M., and Klocke, M. (2014). Assessment of mutagenic potential of pyrolysis biochars by Ames Salmonella/mammalian-microsomal mutagenicity test. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 107, 306-312.

Anyika, C., Abdul Majid, Z., Ibrahim, Z., Zakaria, M., and Yahya, A. (2015). The impact of biochars on sorption and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils—a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22, 3314-3341.

Argudo, M., Salagre, P., Medina, F., Correig, X., and Sueiras, J. E. (1998). Obtention and surface characterisation of several ash-free chars. Carbon 36, 1027-1031.

Asif, M., Muhammad, N., Arshad, K. M., and Ahmad, R. (2014). Yield and nutrient composition of biochar produced from different feedstocks at varying pyrolytic temperatures. Pak. J. Agri. Sci. 5, 75-82.

Bai, M., Wilske, B., Buegger, F., Bruun, E. W., Bach, M., Frede, H.-G., and Breuer, L. (2014). Biodegradation measurements confirm the predictive value of the O:C-ratio for biochar recalcitrance. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 177, 633-637.

Baronti, S., Vaccari, F. P., Miglietta, F., Calzolari, C., Lugato, E., Orlandini, S., Pini, R., Zulian, C., and Genesio, L. (2014). Impact of biochar application on plant water relations in Vitis vinifera (L.). European Journal of Agronomy 53, 38-44.

Bastos, A. C., Prodana, M., Abrantes, N., Keizer, J. J., Soares, A. M. V. M., and Loureiro, S. (2014). Potential risk of biochar-amended soil to aquatic systems: an evaluation based on aquatic bioassays. Ecotoxicology 23, 1784-1793.

Borchard, N., Siemens, J., Ladd, B., Möller, A., and Amelung, W. (2014). Application of biochars to sandy and silty soil failed to increase maize yield under common agricultural practice. Soil and Tillage Research 144, 184-194.

Brennan, A., Jiménez, E., Puschenreiter, M., Alburquerque, J., and Switzer, C. (2014a). Effects of biochar amendment on root traits and contaminant availability of maize plants in a copper and arsenic impacted soil. Plant and Soil 379, 351-360.

Brennan, A., Moreno Jiménez, E., Alburquerque, J. A., Knapp, C. W., and Switzer, C. (2014b). Effects of biochar and activated carbon amendment on maize growth and the uptake and measured availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Environmental Pollution 193, 79-87.

Brewer, C. E., Chuang, V. J., Masiello, C. A., Gonnermann, H., Gao, X., Dugan, B., Driver, L. E., Panzacchi, P., Zygourakis, K., and Davies, C. A. (2014). New approaches to measuring biochar density and porosity. Biomass and Bioenergy 66, 176-185.

Brewer, C. E., Schmidt-Rohr, K., Satrio, J. A., and Brown, R. C. (2009). Characterization of biochar from fast pyrolysis and gasification systems. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 28, 386-396.

Bruun, E. W., Petersen, C., Strobel, B. W., and Hauggaard-Nielsen, H. (2012). Nitrogen and Carbon Leaching in Repacked Sandy Soil with Added Fine Particulate Biochar. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 76, 1142-1148.

Bruun, E. W., Petersen, C. T., Hansen, E., Holm, J. K., and Hauggaard-Nielsen, H. (2014). Biochar amendment to coarse sandy subsoil improves root growth and increases water retention. Soil Use and Management 30, 109-118.

Buss, W., and Mašek, O. (2014). Mobile organic compounds in biochar – A potential source of contamination – Phytotoxic effects on cress seed (Lepidium sativum) germination. Journal of Environmental Management 137, 111-119.

Butnan, S., Deenik, J.L., Toomsan, B., Antal, M.J., and Vityakon, P. (2015). Biochar characteristics and application rates affecting corn growth and properties of soils contrasting in texture and mineralogy. Geoderma 237-238, 105-116.

C. Peterson, S., Appell, M., A. Jackson, M., and A. Boateng, A. (2012). Comparing Corn Stover and Switchgrass Biochar: Characterization and Sorption Properties. Journal of Agricultural Science 5, 1-8.

Cabrera, A., Cox, L., Spokas, K., Hermosín, M. C., Cornejo, J., and Koskinen, W. C. (2014). Influence of biochar amendments on the sorption–desorption of aminocyclopyrachlor, bentazone and pyraclostrobin pesticides to an agricultural soil. Science of The Total Environment 470–471, 438-443.

Calvelo Pereira, R., Camps Arbestain, M., Kaal, J., Vazquez Sueiro, M., Sevilla, M., and Hindmarsh, J. (2014). Detailed carbon chemistry in charcoals from pre-European Maori gardens of New Zealand as a tool for understanding biochar stability in soils. European Journal of Soil Science 65, 83-95.

Calvelo Pereira, R., Muetzel, S., Camps Arbestain, M., Bishop, P., Hina, K., and Hedley, M. (2014). Assessment of the influence of biochar on rumen and silage fermentation: A laboratory-scale experiment. Animal Feed Science and Technology 196, 22-31.

Cely, P., Tarquis, A., Paz-Ferreiro, J., Méndez, A., and Gascó, G. (2014a). Factors driving carbon mineralization priming effect in a soil amended with different types of biochar. Solid Earth Discussions 6, 849-868.

Cely, P., Tarquis, A., Paz-Ferreiro, J., Méndez, A., and Gascó, G. (2014b). Factors driving the carbon mineralization priming effect in a sandy loam soil amended with different types of biochar. Solid Earth 5, 585-594.

Chan, K. Y., Van Zwieten, L., Meszaros, I., Downie, A., and Joseph, S. (2008). Using poultry litter biochars as soil amendments. Soil Research 46, 437-444.

Cheah, S., Malone, S. C., and Feik, C. J. (2014). Speciation of Sulfur in Biochar Produced from Pyrolysis and Gasification of Oak and Corn Stover. Environmental Science & Technology 48, 8474-8480.

Chen, B., and Chen, Z. (2009). Sorption of naphthalene and 1-naphthol by biochars of orange peels with different pyrolytic temperatures. Chemosphere 76, 127-133.

Chen, C.-P., Cheng, C.-H., Huang, Y.-H., Chen, C.-T., Lai, C.-M., Menyailo, O. V., Fan, L.-J., and Yang, Y.-W. (2014a). Converting leguminous green manure into biochar: changes in chemical composition and C and N mineralization. Geoderma 232–234, 581-588.

Chen, D., Liu, D., Zhang, H., Chen, Y., and Li, Q. (2015). Bamboo pyrolysis using TG–FTIR and a lab-scale reactor: Analysis of pyrolysis behavior, product properties, and carbon and energy yields.f Fuel 148, 79-86.

Chen, D., Zhou, J., and Zhang, Q. (2014b). Effects of heating rate on slow pyrolysis behavior, kinetic parameters and products properties of moso bamboo. Bioresource Technology 169, 313-319.

Chen, T., Zhang, Y., Wang, H., Lu, W., Zhou, Z., Zhang, Y., and Ren, L. (2014c). Influence of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics and heavy metal adsorptive performance of biochar derived from municipal sewage sludge. Bioresource Technology 164, 47-54.

Chen, T., Zhou Z., Xu S., Wang H., and Lu W. (2015). Adsorption Behavior Comparison of Trivalent and Hexavalent Chromium on Biochar Derived from Municipal Sludge. Bioresource Technology 190, 388-94. 

Chen, W., Chen, M., and Zhou, X. (2015). Characterization of Biochar Obtained by Co-Pyrolysis of Waste Newspaper and High-Density Polyethylene. BioResources 10(4), 8253-8267.

Cheng, Y., Cai, Z.-c., Chang, S., Wang, J., and Zhang, J.-b. (2012). Wheat straw and its biochar have contrasting effects on inorganic N retention and N2O production in a cultivated Black Chernozem. Biology and Fertility of Soils 48, 941-946.

Chia, C. H., Singh, B. P., Joseph, S., Graber, E. R., and Munroe, P. (2014). Characterization of an enriched biochar. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 108, 26-34.

Chintala, R., Mollinedo, J., Schumacher, T. E., Papiernik, S. K., Malo, D. D., Clay, D. E., Kumar, S., and Gulbrandson, D. W. (2013). Nitrate sorption and desorption in biochars from fast pyrolysis. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 179, 250-257.

Chintala, R., Schumacher, T. E., Kumar, S., Malo, D. D., Rice, J. A., Bleakley, B., Chilom, G., Clay, D. E., Julson, J. L., Papiernik, S. K., and Gu, Z. R. (2014a). Molecular characterization of biochars and their influence on microbiological properties of soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials 279, 244-256.

Chintala, R., Schumacher, T. E., McDonald, L. M., Clay, D. E., Malo, D. D., Papiernik, S. K., Clay, S. A., and Julson, J. L. (2014b). Phosphorus Sorption and Availability from Biochars and Soil/Biochar Mixtures. CLEAN – Soil, Air, Water 42, 626-634.

Chun, Y., Sheng, G., Chiou, C. T., and Xing, B. (2004). Compositions and Sorptive Properties of Crop Residue-Derived Chars. Environmental Science & Technology 38, 4649-4655.

Cimò, G., Kucerik, J., Berns, A. E., Schaumann, G. E., Alonzo, G., and Conte, P. (2014). Effect of Heating Time and Temperature on the Chemical Characteristics of Biochar from Poultry Manure. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62, 1912-1918.

Conti, R., Rombol�, A. G., Modelli, A., Torri, C., and Fabbri, D. (2014). Evaluation of the thermal and environmental stability of switchgrass biochars by Py–GC–MS. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 110, 239-247.

Cordero, T., Marquez, F., Rodriguez-Mirasol, J., and Rodriguez, J. J. (2001). Predicting heating values of lignocellulosics and carbonaceous materials from proximate analysis. Fuel 80, 1567-1571.


Creamer, A. E., Gao, B., and Zhang, M. (2014). Carbon dioxide capture using biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse and hickory wood. Chemical Engineering Journal 249, 174-179.

Crombie, K., and Mašek, O. (2014). Pyrolysis biochar systems, balance between bioenergy and carbon sequestration. GCB Bioenergy.

Crombie, K., Mašek, O., Cross, A., and Sohi, S. (2014). Biochar – synergies and trade-offs between soil enhancing properties and C sequestration potential. GCB Bioenergy.

Crombie, K., Mašek, O., Sohi, S. P., Brownsort, P., and Cross, A. (2013). The effect of pyrolysis conditions on biochar stability as determined by three methods. GCB Bioenergy 5, 122-131.

Dai, Z., Li, R., Muhammad, N., Brookes, P. C., Wang, H., Liu, X., and Xu, J. (2014). Principle Component and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Soil Properties following Biochar Incorporation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 78, 205-213.

de la Rosa, J. M., Paneque, M., Miller, A. Z., and Knicker, H. (2014). Relating physical and chemical properties of four different biochars and their application rate to biomass production of Lolium perenne on a Calcic Cambisol during a pot experiment of 79 days. Science of The Total Environment 499, 175-184.

Deenik, J. L., McClellan, T., Uehara, G., Antal, M. J., Jr., and Campbell, S. (2010). Charcoal Volatile Matter Content Influences Plant Growth and Soil Nitrogen Transformations. Soil Science Society of America Journal 74, 1259-1270.

Demisie, W., Liu, Z., and Zhang, M. (2014). Effect of biochar on carbon fractions and enzyme activity of red soil. CATENA 121, 214-221.

Devi, P., and Saroha, A. K. (2013). Effect Of Temperature On Biochar Properties During Paper Mill Sludge Pyrolysis. International Journal of ChemTech Research 5, 682-687.

Dong, D., Feng, Q., McGrouther, K., Yang, M., Wang, H., and Wu, W. (2014). Effects of biochar amendment on rice growth and nitrogen retention in a waterlogged paddy field. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 1-10.

Ducey, T. F., Ippolito, J. A., Cantrell, K. B., Novak, J. M., and Lentz, R. D. (2013). Addition of activated switchgrass biochar to an aridic subsoil increases microbial nitrogen cycling gene abundances. Applied Soil Ecology 65, 65-72.

Dume, B., Berecha, G., and Tulu, S. (2015). Characterization of Biochar Produced at Different Temperatures and its Effect on Acidic Nitosol of Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. International Journal of Soil Science 10(2), 63-73. 

Elleuch, A., Boussetta, A., Yu, J., Halouani, K., and Li, Y. (2013). Experimental investigation of direct carbon fuel cell fueled by almond shell biochar: Part I. Physico-chemical characterization of the biochar fuel and cell performance examination. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 38, 16590-16604.

Enders, A., Hanley, K., Whitman, T., Joseph, S., and Lehmann, J. (2012). Characterization of biochars to evaluate recalcitrance and agronomic performance. Bioresource Technology 114, 644-653.

Fang, C., Zhang, T., Li, P., Jiang, R.-f., and Wang, Y.-c. (2014a). Application of Magnesium Modified Corn Biochar for Phosphorus Removal and Recovery from Swine Wastewater. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11, 9217-9237.

Fang, Q., Chen, B., Lin, Y., and Guan, Y. (2013). Aromatic and Hydrophobic Surfaces of Wood-derived Biochar Enhance Perchlorate Adsorption via Hydrogen Bonding to Oxygen-containing Organic Groups. Environmental Science & Technology 48, 279-288.

Fang, Y., Singh, B., Singh, B. P., and Krull, E. (2014b). Biochar carbon stability in four contrasting soils. European Journal of Soil Science 65, 60-71.

Fang, Y., Singh, B. P., and Singh, B. (2014d). Temperature sensitivity of biochar and native carbon mineralisation in biochar-amended soils. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 191, 158-167.

Farrell, M., Macdonald, L., Butler, G., Chirino-Valle, I., and Condron, L. (2014). Biochar and fertiliser applications influence phosphorus fractionation and wheat yield. Biology and Fertility of Soils 50, 169-178.

Farrell, M., Macdonald, L. M., and Baldock, J. A. (2015). Biochar differentially affects the cycling and partitioning of low molecular weight carbon in contrasting soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 80, 79-88.

Felber, R., Leifeld, J., Horák, J., and Neftel, A. (2014). Nitrous oxide emission reduction with greenwaste biochar: comparison of laboratory and field experiments. European Journal of Soil Science 65, 128-138.

Fernández, J. M., Nieto, M. A., López-de-Sá, E. G., Gascó, G., Méndez, A., and Plaza, C. (2014). Carbon dioxide emissions from semi-arid soils amended with biochar alone or combined with mineral and organic fertilizers. Science of The Total Environment 482–483, 1-7.

Fitzgerald, S., Kolar, P., Classen, J., Boyette, M., and Das, L. (2015). Swine manure char as an adsorbent for mitigation of p-cresol. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 34, 125-131.

Fulton, W., Gray, M., Prahl, F., and Kleber, M. (2013). A simple technique to eliminate ethylene emissions from biochar amendment in agriculture. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 33, 469-474.

Fungo, B., Guerena, D., Thiongo, M., Lehmann, J., Neufeldt, H., and Kalbitz, K. (2014). N2O and CH4 emission from soil amended with steam-activated biochar. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 177, 34-38.

Galvez, A., Sinicco, T., Cayuela, M. L., Mingorance, M. D., Fornasier, F., and Mondini, C. (2012). Short term effects of bioenergy by-products on soil C and N dynamics, nutrient availability and biochemical properties. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 160, 3-14.

García-Jaramillo, M., Cox, L., Knicker, H. E., Cornejo, J., Spokas, K. A., and Hermosín, M. C. (2015). Characterization and selection of biochar for an efficient retention of tricyclazole in a flooded alluvial paddy soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials 286, 581-588.

Gaskin, J. W., Steiner, C., Harris, K., Das, K. C., and Bibens, B. (2008). Effect of low-temperature pyrolysis conditions on biochar for agricultural use. Transactions of the Asabe 51, 2061-2069.

Ghani, W. A. W. A. K., Mohd, A., da Silva, G., Bachmann, R. T., Taufiq-Yap, Y. H., Rashid, U., and Al-Muhtaseb, A. a. H. (2013). Biochar production from waste rubber-wood-sawdust and its potential use in C sequestration: Chemical and physical characterization. Industrial Crops and Products 44, 18-24.

Graber, E., Tsechansky, L., Gerstl, Z., and Lew, B. (2012). High surface area biochar negatively impacts herbicide efficacy. Plant and soil 353, 95-106.

Gunes, A., Inal, A., Taskin, M. B., Sahin, O., Kaya, E. C., and Atakol, A. (2014). Effect of phosphorus-enriched biochar and poultry manure on growth and mineral composition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv.) grown in alkaline soil. Soil Use and Management 30, 182-188.

Gwenzi, W., Chaukura, N., Mukome, F. N. D., Machado, S., and Nyamasoka, B. (2015). Biochar production and applications in sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities, constraints, risks and uncertainties. Journal of Environmental Management 150, 250-261.

Hale, L., Luth, M., and Crowley, D. (2015). Biochar characteristics relate to its utility as an alternative soil inoculum carrier to peat and vermiculite. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 81, 228-235.

Hale, S. E., Endo, S., Arp, H. P. H., Zimmerman, A. R., and Cornelissen, G. (2015). Sorption of the monoterpenes α-pinene and limonene to carbonaceous geosorbents including biochar. Chemosphere 119, 881-888.

Hale, S. E., Hanley, K., Lehmann, J., Zimmerman, A. R., and Cornelissen, G. (2012). Effects of Chemical, Biological, and Physical Aging As Well As Soil Addition on the Sorption of Pyrene to Activated Carbon and Biochar. Environmental science & technology 46, 2479-2480.

Hall, K. E., Calderon, M. J., Spokas, K. A., Cox, L., Koskinen, W. C., Novak, J., and Cantrell, K. (2014). Phenolic Acid Sorption to Biochars from Mixtures of Feedstock Materials. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 225, 1-9.

Hameed, B. H., and El-Khaiary, M. I. (2008). Kinetics and equilibrium studies of malachite green adsorption on rice straw-derived char. Journal of Hazardous Materials 153, 701-708.

Hammes, K., Smernik, R. J., Skjemstad, J. O., and Schmidt, M. W. I. (2008). Characterisation and evaluation of reference materials for black carbon analysis using elemental composition, colour, BET surface area and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Applied Geochemistry 23, 2113-2122.

Hamza, U.D., Nasri, N.S., Amin, N.S., Mohammed, J., and Zain, H.M. (2015). Characteristics of oil palm shell biochar and activated carbon prepared at different carbonization times. Desalination and Water Treatment 57, 7999-8006.

Han, L., Sun, K., Jin, J., Wei, X., Xia, X., Wu, F., Gao, B., and Xing, B. (2014). Role of Structure and Microporosity in Phenanthrene Sorption by Natural and Engineered Organic Matter. Environmental Science & Technology 48, 11227-11234.

Han, X., Liang, C.-f., Li, T.-q., Wang, K., Huang, H.-g., and Yang, X.-e. (2013a). Simultaneous removal of cadmium and sulfamethoxazole from aqueous solution by rice straw biochar. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 14, 640-649.

Han, Y., Boateng, A. A., Qi, P. X., Lima, I. M., and Chang, J. (2013b). Heavy metal and phenol adsorptive properties of biochars from pyrolyzed switchgrass and woody biomass in correlation with surface properties. Journal of Environmental Management 118, 196-204.

Han, Z., Sani, B., Mrozik, W., Obst, M., Beckingham, B., Karapanagioti, H. K., and Werner, D. (2015). Magnetite impregnation effects on the sorbent properties of activated carbons and biochars. Water Research 70, 394-403.

Hanwu Lei, L.Z., Wang, L., Yadavalli, G., Zhang, X., Wei, Y., Liu, Y., Yan, D., Chen, S., and Ahring, B. (2015). Biochar of corn stover: Microwave-assisted pyrolysis condition induced changes in surface functional groups and characteristics. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 115, 149-156.

Harvey, O. R., Herbert, B. E., Rhue, R. D., and Kuo, L.-J. (2011). Metal Interactions at the Biochar-Water Interface: Energetics and Structure-Sorption Relationships Elucidated by Flow Adsorption Microcalorimetry. Environmental Science & Technology 45, 5550-5556.

Herath, H. M. S. K., Camps-Arbestain, M., and Hedley, M. (2013). Effect of biochar on soil physical properties in two contrasting soils: An Alfisol and an Andisol. Geoderma 209–210, 188-197.

Herath, H. M. S. K., Camps-Arbestain, M., Hedley, M., Van Hale, R., and Kaal, J. (2014a). Fate of biochar in chemically- and physically-defined soil organic carbon pools. Organic Geochemistry 73, 35-46.

Herath, I., Kumarathilaka, P., Navaratne, A., Rajakaruna, N., and Vithanage, M. (2014c). Immobilization and phytotoxicity reduction of heavy metals in serpentine soil using biochar. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 1-13.

Hmid, A., Mondelli, D., Fiore, S., Fanizzi, F. P., Al Chami, Z., and Dumontet, S. (2014). Production and characterization of biochar from three-phase olive mill waste through slow pyrolysis. Biomass and Bioenergy 71, 330-339.

Holm, T. R., Machesky, M. L., and Scott, J. W. (2014). Sorption of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) to Biochar and Estimates of PAH Bioavailability. Champaign, IL: Illinois Sustainable Technology Center.

Houben, D., Evrard, L., and Sonnet, P. (2013). Mobility, bioavailability and pH-dependent leaching of cadmium, zinc and lead in a contaminated soil amended with biochar. Chemosphere 92, 1450-1457.

Houben, D., Sonnet, P., and Cornelis, J.-T. (2014). Biochar from Miscanthus: a potential silicon fertilizer. Plant and Soil 374, 871-882.

Hu, Y.-L., Wu, F.-P., Zeng, D.-H., and Chang, S. (2014). Wheat straw and its biochar had contrasting effects on soil C and N cycling two growing seasons after addition to a Black Chernozemic soil planted to barley. Biology and Fertility of Soils 50, 1291-1299.

Hua, L., Lu, Z., Ma, H., and Jin, S. (2014). Effect of biochar on carbon dioxide release, organic carbon accumulation, and aggregation of soil. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 33, 941-946.

Huang, W., and Chen, B. (2010). Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal. Journal of Environmental Sciences 22, 1586-1594.

Huff, M. D., Kumar, S., and Lee, J. W. (2014). Comparative analysis of pinewood, peanut shell, and bamboo biomass derived biochars produced via hydrothermal conversion and pyrolysis. Journal of Environmental Management 146, 303-308.

Hwang, H., Oh, S., Choi, I.-G., and Choi, J. W. (2014). Catalytic effects of magnesium on the characteristics of fast pyrolysis products – Bio-oil, bio-char, and non-condensed pyrolytic gas fractions. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis.

Im, J.-K., Boateng, L. K., Flora, J. R. V., Her, N., Zoh, K.-D., Son, A., and Yoon, Y. (2014). Enhanced ultrasonic degradation of acetaminophen and naproxen in the presence of powdered activated carbon and biochar adsorbents. Separation and Purification Technology 123, 96-105.

Inyang, M., and Dickenson, E. (2015). The potential role of biochar in the removal of organic and microbial contaminants from potable and reuse water: A review. Chemosphere 134, 232-240.

Inyang, M., Gao, B., Zimmerman, A., Zhou, Y., and Cao, X. (2015). Sorption and cosorption of lead and sulfapyridine on carbon nanotube-modified biochars. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22, 1868-1876.

Jain, S., Baruah, B. P., and Khare, P. (2014). Kinetic leaching of high sulphur mine rejects amended with biochar: Buffering implication. Ecological Engineering 71, 703-709.

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Jung, C., Boateng, L. K., Flora, J. R. V., Oh, J., Braswell, M. C., Son, A., and Yoon, Y. (2015). Competitive adsorption of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on activated biochars: Experimental and molecular modeling study. Chemical Engineering Journal 264, 1-9.

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Kastner, J. R., Mani, S., and Juneja, A. (2015). Catalytic decomposition of tar using iron supported biochar. Fuel Processing Technology 130, 31-37.

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Khan, N., Clark, I., Sánchez-Monedero, M. A., Shea, S., Meier, S., and Bolan, N. (2014). Maturity indices in co-composting of chicken manure and sawdust with biochar. Bioresource Technology 168, 245-251.

Khan, S., Wang, N., Reid, B. J., Freddo, A., and Cai, C. (2013). Reduced bioaccumulation of PAHs by Lactuca satuva L. grown in contaminated soil amended with sewage sludge and sewage sludge derived biochar. Environmental Pollution 175, 64-68.

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Lee, B.-K., and Nguyen, M.-V. (2014). Cu2+ ion adsorption from aqueous solutions by amine activated poultry manure biochar. Journal of Selcuk University Natural and Applied Science, 877-884.

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Méndez, A., Paz-Ferreiro, J., Araujo, F., and Gascó, G. (2014). Biochar from pyrolysis of deinking paper sludge and its use in the treatment of a nickel polluted soil. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 107, 46-52.

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